The Sierra consists of Jurassic batholiths, with 177 million years old, the mountainous country's highest (5,775 m, ie above the snowcapped peaks of the Andes and unrelated to them) puts snow-capped peaks a short distance from the warmer tropical sea in the world.

Was the principal seat of the Tayronas (Lost City), a civilization that developed in the early Christian era and reached its best level of culture between the fifth century and the year sixteen hundred, when they were destroyed after a long struggle against Spanish. They generated a high level of design and technology for the construction of settlements and roads and intensively exploited terraces for cultivation with artificial irigation.
Its gold and ceramic products reached their highest refinement. Its mythology and high awareness of environmental conditions in its territory are the subject of extensive anthropological and are reflected in many currently traditions of the Koguis and Arhuacos, Sanka and Kankuamo.

Half a dozen rivers descend from the heights. And the wind usually blows from the continent to the sea, unlike what happens in most of the Colombian Caribbean, resulting in cooler nights.

Of all human groups organized in the Pre-Columbian Colombia, the most highlighted were the Taironas.

From the waters of its rivers are dependent the city of Santa Marta and a half dozen cities and the whole farming system in the region, producing bananas, rice, cotton and grain in the departments of Magdalena, Cesar and La Guajira.

The Sierra is of extreme scientific curiosity from the point of view geological, ecological and anthropological.

Harbors three largest indigenous groups in cultural roots (Koguis, Arhuacos and Arsario who are descendants of the Tayrona), the Sierra is also the territory of two large areas of reservation under the authority of the natives.

The Government declared Natural Park a good portion of the territory of the same, full-height upwards.